By chance or by design?
The fine-tuned Universe is the proposition that the conditions that allow life in the Universe can only occur when certain universal fundamental physical constants lie within a very narrow range, so that if any of several fundamental constants were only slightly different, the Universe would be unlikely to be conducive to the establishment and development of matter, astronomical structures, elemental diversity, or life as it is presently understood.
It is known that the Universe would be very different, if these constants took values significantly different from those we observe. For example, a few percent change in the value of the fine-structure constant would be enough to eliminate stars like our Sun.
There is now broad agreement among physicists and cosmologists that the Universe is in several respects 'fine-tuned' for life. ... The conclusion is not so much that the Universe is fine-tuned for life; rather it is fine-tuned for the building blocks and environments that life requires.
The laws of science, as we know them at present, contain many fundamental numbers, like the size of the electric charge of the electron and the ratio of the masses of the proton and the electron. The remarkable fact is that the values of these numbers seem to have been very finely adjusted to make possible the development of life.
A slight change in the magnitude of the electric force, the speed of light, Planck's constant, or Boltzmann's constant would have dire consequences: the universe would not be able to produce life. A slight change in the mass of the electron would also be disastrous.
An atom is like a miniature Solar System, with a tight nucleus playing the role of a Sun orbited by electrons like planets.
Rutherford's atomic model resembles the planetary motion in solar system. Therefore, Rutherford's model of an atom is called planetary model.
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
Symbiosis is close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species.
People certainly compete, but they collaborate, too. They also have compassion for the fallen and frequently try to help them, rather than treading on them. For this sort of behaviour, "On the Origin of Species" had no explanation.
In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense — not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species ... in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits ... and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development ... are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution. The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay.
Philosophy is written in this grand book - I mean the universe - which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth.
As a man who has devoted his whole life to the most clearheaded science, to the study of matter, I can tell you as a result of my research about the atoms this much: There is no matter as such! All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particles of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. ... We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent Mind. This Mind is the matrix of all matter.
The multiverse is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite possible universes that together comprise everything that exists and can exist: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them.
The multiverse hypothesis is a source of disagreement within the physics community. Physicists disagree about whether the multiverse exists, and whether the multiverse is a proper subject of scientific inquiry. Supporters of one of the multiverse hypotheses include Stephen Hawking, Steven Weinberg, Brian Greene, Max Tegmark, and Alex Vilenkin. In contrast, critics such as David Gross, Paul Steinhardt, and Paul Davies have argued that the multiverse question is philosophical rather than scientific, or even that the multiverse hypothesis is harmful or pseudoscientific. ... Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy.
New Atheist Victor J. Stenger and some of his typical atheist books
When humans lived in caves they imagined spirits behind earthquakes, storms, and illness. Today we have scientific explanations for those events and much more. Similarly, science may someday have a theory from which the values of existing physical constants can be derived or at otherwise explained.
So those who desire explicit signs of God in science now look deeper, to highly sophisticated puzzles like the cosmological constant problem. But, once again, science continues to progress, and we now have a plausible explanation that does not require fine-tuning.
More typical atheist books by New Atheist Victor J. Stenger
If many universes beside our own exist, then the anthropic coincidences are a no-brainer.